Twinning is one of the main tools of the European Union (EU) for administrative cooperation between public administration of the Beneficiary Country and public administration of the EU Member State.

The key purpose of the Twinning projects is to provide assistance and knowledge transfer related to implementation and enforcement of the Union acquis. The principal stakeholders of Twinning projects are public administration bodies and institutions that achieve predetermined mandatory results and objectives through administrative cooperation.

As it involves the direct cooperation between similar institutions, Twinning enables creation of added value in the public sector that cannot be realised through other types of projects.

Launched in May 1998, Twinning was initially primarily oriented towards accession countries, candidate countries and potential candidate countries preparing for EU membership. Through Twinning these countries received support in implementation of reforms, harmonization of legislation with the Union acquis as well as support in the process of adjustment and strengthening of public bodies and institutions.

Since 2004, Twinning has also been present in the Beneficiary Countries in the EU’s eastern and southern neighbourhoods covered by the Partnership Agreement with the aim of approximation of their legislative frameworks to the Union acquis and strengthening of administrative capacities of their public bodies and institutions.

Financial support for implementation of Twinning projects is provided by the EU. The Twinning projects are funded through two main instruments: IPA (candidate and potential candidate countries) and ENP (countries encompassed within the European Neighbourhood Policy).


  • Albania
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Montenegro
  • Kosovo *
  • North Macedonia
  • Serbia
  • Turkey


  • Algeria
  • Armenia
  • Azerbaijan
  • Egypt
  • Georgia
  • Israel
  • Jordan
  • Lebanon
  • Morocco
  • Moldova
  • Tunisia
  • Ukraine
  • Palestine**

Additional information:

*This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo Declaration of Independence.

**This designation does not entail any recognition of Palestine as a state and is without prejudice to positions on the recognition of Palestine as a state.

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